Epistemic Belief structures within Introductory Astronomy - K. Johnson and S. D. Willoughby.  Physical Review PER 14, 010135 (2018).   https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.14.010135

Confirmatory Factor Analysis Applied to the Force Concept Inventory - P. Eaton and S. D. Willoughby.   Physical Review PER 14,010124 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.14.010124

Changing Epistemological Beliefs with Nature of Science Implementations - K. Johnson and S. D. Willoughby . Physical Review PER 14, 010110 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevPhysEducRes.14.010110 

Epistemological Beliefs of non-STEM majors Regarding the Nature of Science: Where they are and what we can do - S. D. Willoughby and K. Johnson, American Journal of Physics, 85 461 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1119/1.4979654

Comparing Physics students' and Astronomy students' responses to the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory - K. Williamson, E. Prather and S. D. Willoughby, American Journal of Physics, 84 458 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.4945347

Development of the Newtonian Gravity Concept Inventory - K. Williamson, S. Willoughby and E. Prather, Astronomy Education Review, 12, (1) 010107 (2013). http://www.per-central.org/items/Load.cfm?ID=14006

Student Understanding of Gravity in Introductory Astronomy - K. Williamson and S. D. Willoughby, Astronomy Education Review, 11 (1), 010105 (2012). https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ971056

Encouraging student participation in large Astronomy courses - S. D. Willoughby, The Physics Teacher, 50 (3), 146 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1119/1.3685109

Listening to student conversations during clicker questions: what you don't hear may surprise you - M. James and S. D. Willoughby, American Journal of Physics. 79, 123 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1119/1.3488097

Exploring gender differences with different gain calculations in astronomy and biology - S. D. Willoughby and A. Metz, American Journal of Physics 77 (7), 651--657 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1119/1.3133087

Technology talks: clickers and grading incentive in the large lecture hall - S. D. Willoughby and E. Gustafson, American Journal of Physics 77 (2), 180-183 (2009).  http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.3013542